Colleges and Universities in Germany
II. Although the number of young people entering the university has tripled since the end of World War II , the university still remains behind many European countries. This is partly due to the high degree of internship in applied dual education system (see also German model ).
Universities in Germany are part of the free state education system and there are very few private universities and colleges. Although the organizational structure advocated the return to university reform by Wilhelm von Humboldt in the early nineteenth century, this practice has been criticized by some (German-born, president of Stanford University , Gerhard Casper ) for an unstable viewpoint and state dependency, ignoring the importance of education. Today, most of the German state universities resemble the typical American institutions rather than the original Humboldt vision.
German university students often choose their own program of study and professors themselves decide on research and teaching. This elective system is often spending many years at university before students graduate and is currently under scrutiny. There are no classes where students who have studied together and graduated have fixed degrees. Students are able to change the schools they are studying according to their wishes and the strengths of the universities. Sometimes students participate in two, three or more courses from different universities during their studies. This movement in German universities means freedom and individualism that is not in the USA, England or France.
After leaving school, students may choose to continue to college; but in the beginning male students have to be in a nine-month military service or alternative service ( Zivildienst ).
Gymnasium graduation ( Abitur ) opens the entire university portal; there is also no need for an entrance exam. (The other way to get a university entrance qualification is to go to the Abiturdurchschnittsnote (GPA like in USA or A-Level in the UK) related to Berufsoberschule is required to be selected for the university, an institution can explain the entry condition for a certain course.This application numerus clausus “), but only for demanding courses, for example, a medical course requires a score of between 1.0 and 1.5 on the Abitur exam.
A student who is based in the gymnasium can not take classes like the credit system in college. It is probable that the credit system is still unknown in Germany, despite the fact that the Bologna process has been put into practice to ensure grading in the EU as it is in education and in Germany. At the end of a course, the whole set of certificates (“Scheine”) that the required courses (or examinations) given by the professors have been successfully completed are valid. With a few exceptions, students may not be able to obtain certificates for their courses (eg Gymnasium based ) without having been officially enrolled in the university, even though they may be counted as gestational anomalies. Generally, there are a few special required courses, which vary depending on the interests of the students as the lessons become less or less common. A student has obtained the required number of certificates and can decide to enroll for the final exam if he / she has the lower limit of attendance requirement in elective courses (if he is a master student). In most cases, the marks of these certificates are completely omitted and the final diploma grade consists only of the grades of the final exams and master thesis. While most students are struggling to get high grades in order to meet BAFG or scholarship requirements, this practice can potentially harm student motivation and achieve excellence in their work.
The gymnasium is also kept under strict observation by students’ teachers and the continuity of all classes is regularly checked. However, attendance at German universities is only taken into account in the course (s) in which the student is to be certified, and attendance checks are generally fairly free (usually as evidence of continued signing without subjecting the student to an unexamined case report) and is rarely done. Life in German universities can be quite individual and anonymous at first, but most students are able to make groups with friends and acquaintances in the first years and then take the courses together and work as a group in the final exams.
In the first two or three years of science lessons are taught by curriculum, while in free art courses each student can take his or her preferred course and seminar (usually Zwischenprüfung entrance requires three sets of certificates from one of several seminars) and may take the exam at the end of the study period. Every student can take the final exam when he is ready. Some have lasted at least 4 years, while the most can take 5-6 years, but the university can also spend 10 years (this may have changed several times). In addition to school life for 13 years, after graduating from military service for one year, graduation can sometimes be at the age of 30, and many live their first serious work experience after this period after temporary work in several part-time jobs or semesters.
If the university is successfully read for two years (after Zwischenprüfung / Vordiplom ), students can be sent to other countries as undergraduate students. In grades 4-6, graduate students, who are called Diplom (in science) or Magister (art), equivalent to M.Sc., MA or Magister Artium , have completed their studies. .
A special type of rating is Staatsexamen . This examination by the government is necessary for the doctors, teachers, lawyers, judges, prosecutors and pharmacists to start their duties. Students usually study for 4-8 years at universities before entering Staatsexamen for the first time. Later, the teachers and lawyers continue to work in the profession to come in for a second time and to come up to two years to test their professional skills. First Staatsexamen test, M.Sc., MA, LL.M. or JD.
In Germany there is also a post- Abitur college education: the Fachhochschulen (University of Applied Sciences), while offering similar grades to classical universities, mostly focuses on applied sciences. In classical universities, it is important to study how a method is scientifically “why”, but in Applied Science Universities these points are not so important. It is sometimes stressful to work on which system or method is born, where it comes from, what are the advantages and disadvantages, how to use it in practice and when and when to use it. Students begin their courses together and graduate together (more or less), so there is not much choice in the curriculum. In order to gain professional experience, internships are a mandatory practice in Fachhochschule schools. While UoAS students are more successful at putting on learned sciences and skills, Classic University students are better off than developing methods. The practice of both types of universities is becoming more and more similar due to the fact that UoA-S professors do their doctors in classical universities and classical universities consider the importance of practice. Today, the difference between practical orientation and theoretical orientation in science is greater.
After about 4-5 years (depending on how long a student must complete and repeat the classes he or she needs to take) a Fachhochschule student has completed his education and is ready to start his working life. Fachhochschule graduates “Dipl.” (Diploma) and have a title that ends with “(FH)”, for example “Dipl. Ing. (FH)” means a graduate of Fachhochschule . The FH Diploma is roughly equivalent to the Bachelor’s degree. The FH Diploma is a Ph.D. program – many universities require an additional entrance examination or bring FH graduate candidates a condition of participation in theoretical lectures. Past examples are seen in the past. FH or UoAS graduates could not get their doctorate even though they graduated better than high school ones. This practice has changed completely since the end of the eighties, but the professors of classical universities still call themselves “real professors”, not being a valid judge. Under the Bologna process, undergraduate and graduate grades are applied in the same way in universities of applied and general sciences.
As with all other schools in Germany, all classes are free of charge at 250 classical universities and applied sciences universities. And it can be said that the government has provided full scholarship. However, students who stay longer than Regelstudienzeit (the “normal duration of courses”, the statistically calculated minimum time required to successfully graduate) are required to pay Langzeitstudiengebühren (“long tuition fee”) for each period of approximately € 500. Today, a few private education institutions (especially business schools) require tuition fees, but these institutions do not have the high standards and acceptance that state universities have. Another negative aspect of special education institutions in Germany is that they can only provide one or more courses, and in this case they do not have the internationally recognized high admission requirements.
Colleges and Universities in Germany
People have to pay the book fees as well as the room and board. After a certain age, people must also meet compulsory student health insurance (50 EURO per month) and other social service costs (40-100 EURO per semester). Students also benefit from inexpensive public transport ( Semesterticket ) facilities both inside and outside the university. There are cheap student rooms for students made by Studentenwerk , an independent non-profit organization and financed by the state. The price of these rooms is 150 Euro per month, excluding meals. Otherwise apartments are around 500 EURO, but usually 3 or 5 students share an apartment. The meal costs about 100 EURO (2002). Many banks provide free bank accounts for a certain age (usually 25) to students.
While the German Constitutional Court was the sole responsible state for on-the-job training, it was against the Constitution to prohibit tuition fees by a federal law. According to this decision, several state administrations (for example Bavaria and North Rhine-Westphalia ) declared a tuition fee of around 500 euros per semester for the next year. Many state parliaments approve a law that allows universities to charge tuition fees of up to 500 euros. Local laws have been put in place to give universities greater freedom in their decisions, but in this case it is necessary to make them more economically efficient, so that many universities have decided not to arrange fees so quickly that there is no minimum. As a direct consequence of this, it has been tried to determine the fees according to the scales provided with the participation of 100 to 10000 students in the important cities, for example the state of Hesse in Frankfurt decided to apply a tuition fee of about 1500 euro.
There are no scholarships funded by universities in Germany, but a number of private or public institutions distribute scholarships for living and books. In addition, there is a law ( BAFÖG or Bundesausbildungsförderungsgesetz ) that will allow students or their families to receive support for up to € 550 per month for 4-5 years if they can not afford the training costs. Part of this money (about half) is borrowed and reimbursed without profit. Despite being very questionable about details, many universities continue to prepare scholarship programs to cover some of their tuition fees.
Most students are moved to the city where the university is located if they are far away. From one side of Germany to the other; There is a full day from Flensburg to Konstanz (1000 km or 620 miles). As noted above, there are no university-provided campus accommodation in Germany, and for historical reasons most campuses are scattered around the city. University students who are away from their hometown rent private rooms in the city. With no standard, this is usually the case. Until half of the students are half of their students, they are working to earn extra money, resulting in more stay at the university.
Roughly statistics for Germany:
- Number of students enrolled every year: 1,000,000
- Abitur graduates: 400,000
- Doctoral thesis given every year: 30,000
- Number of associate professors (intermediate steps to be professors) starting with yearly reference: 1000
Grade: After taking the required courses, Diplomas or Magisters will be awarded with diplomas equivalent to those in other countries. (after at least 4-5 years). The Ph.D. degree is not an official course, but takes an additional 3-5 years with independent research under the supervision of a professor. Many doctoral candidates work as teaching or research assistants and receive a reasonable salary.
Recently, within the context of the so-called Bologna Treaty, new lesson plans – the Bachelor and Master Degree (now unknown) – and ETCS credits have begun work on establishing an international acceptance system. These changes have not yet become mandatory in the universities and are expected to develop from the bottom up. Until now, students are reluctant to start these new courses because employers around Germany will not use the new scheme by choosing the system they know. In the summer of 2001, only 5% of all students were eager to complete their undergraduate or graduate degrees, so many universities and applied sciences universities have changed their course offerings to give only undergraduate or postgraduate certificates. (for example Bremen or Erfurt).
In addition, there are courses for eg attorneys and teachers for German public service to prepare for the Staatsexamen (state examination) exam, but none of these courses have an academic value anywhere (although the courses are identical).
As a whole, German universities have international acceptance. This is due to the order of German universities among international universities. Ten German universities are among the top 200 universities in the THES – QS World University Ranking in 2006.